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Glossary

  • A
  • - see Bronson lace
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  • B
  • - cloth that has the same number of threads per inch in both warp and weft.
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  • - horizontal roller on the front (cloth beam) or back (warp beam) of a loom.
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  • - winding the warp onto the warp beam. The layers of warp are usually separated with heavy paper or warping sticks.
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  • - the frame that holds the reed. On a jack loom it is bottom-mounted and stable. On a countermarch loom it is top-mounted and swings freely.
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  • - weave structures where the same warp and weft threads can produce two different interlacements. One is considered "pattern" and one is considered "background." A single block is formed by all of the warp and weft threads that always
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  • - the diagonal line characteristic of twill is broken by an interruption (either in threading, treadling, or both) of the usual twill sequence in which adjacent warps interlace with adjacent wefts.
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  • - a unit weave with (usually) six ends and six picks in a unit. Either plain weave or lace can be woven in each independent unit. Some threads group together and leave spaces in the fabric. This combination of groups and spaces create lace.
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  • C
  • - the top part of the loom framework. It supports the shafts.
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  • - an "x" made in the warp when winding off a warp on a warping board. It can be made on one end or both, and it helps prevent tangles by maintaining the order of the threads.
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  • D
  • - the slot in a reed. A 12-dent reed has 12 dents per inch. The warp is threaded through the dents.
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  • - a diagram that represents a woven pattern. A full draft will depict the threading, tie-up, treadling sequence, and a drawdown of the cloth.
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  • - where the selvedges pull-in and subtract from the width in the reed.
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  • E
  • - ends per inch
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  • - a single warp thread.
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  • F
  • - the edge of the weaving made by the last weft pick.
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  • - another term for weft.
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  • - this refers to how cloth is processed when it is taken off the loom. Finishing can be washing, brushing, etc. It also refers to knotting or twisting of fringe, hemming, etc.
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  • - the first and last threads on either side of the warp. Floating selvedges are threaded through the reed but not through the heddles. They do not rise or fall with treadling.
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  • - warp or weft threads that do not intersect. They are intentional "skips" that occur in woven cloth.
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  • - a cloth finishing process. Fabric is washed and the yarns shrink and bond together.
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  • H
  • - rods attached to the shafts. Each heddle has an eye, and a single warp thread passes through it. Heddles can be made from flat metal, wire, nylon braid, or string.
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  • - a unit weave with at least six ends and picks in a unit. The unit is divided into half units, and each half unit has an odd number of ends. Three combinations can be woven: plain weave in both half units, plain weave in one half unit alternating with
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  • L
  • - a horizontal bar on the loom. The lamms connect the shafts to the treadles.
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  • - sticks that come with a loom. They usually match the loom width. Lease sticks can be used during the warping process to hold the cross.
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  • - the length of warp threads in the front and back that are not woven. Also known as thrums.
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  • M
  • - a simple weave forming two blocks of pattern with four shafts. The warp ends in one block weave plain weave as individual ends while groups of warp ends interlace in plain weave order with the same weft in the alternate block. Since pattern cannot be
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  • O
  • - a supplementary-weft structure with a plain weave ground cloth. The supplementary weft floats over an entire block, under an entire block, or over and under alternate ends in a block to form halftones. Since the pattern area is limited by float length
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  • P
  • - picks per inch. This is the number of weft threads per inch of woven cloth.
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  • - one weft shot.
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  • - a simple weave structure. One weft passes over one warp end and under one warp end. The adjacent warp end and weft pick reverse the actions of the first. The minimum number of threads required for plain weave is two warp threads and two weft threads
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  • R
  • - a steel comb (usually a plastic comb on a rigid heddle loom) that separates the warp threads at the correct density for the warp width. In the U.S., reeds are designated by the number of spaces (dents) per inch. For example, they can be 6, 8, 10, 12
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  • S
  • - the vertical edges of the woven cloth. The sides of the fabric that will not unravel.
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  • - number of ends per inch.
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  • - frame on the loom that holds the heddles; also know as harness.
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  • - opening between the upper and lower warp threads. The shuttle and weft threads pass through the shed.
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  • - the tool that holds the weft. Some types of shuttles include stick shuttles, boat shuttles, and end feed shuttles.
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  • - passing the warp threads through the slots of the reed.
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  • T
  • - plain weave . Tabby is used for every other pick in structures like overshot, and summer and winter.
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  • - loom waste.
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  • - how the treadles are attached to the lamms of the loom. The tie-up is usually included in a weaving draft.
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  • - pedals at the bottom of the loom that are attached to the lamms. Stepping on a treadle activates the shafts that are tied to that pedal.
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  • - order that the shafts are raised in order to create the woven cloth. Treadling is usually depicted in the draft. It is the order that the sheds are made.
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  • - treadling in the same order as the threading. This is also known as "woven as drawn in."
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  • U
  • - alternate a pattern row with plain weave . Drafts do not usually show all the tabby picks. Often there is a treadling notation that states "use tabby."
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  • W
  • - a tie-up designed so the weaver can treadle in a walking motion, using the left and right foot alternately.
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  • - vertically aligned threads that attach to the front and back of the loom. A single warp thread is an end .
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  • - the warp is dominant in the woven cloth. The weft is covered by the warp.
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  • - dressing the loom in preparation for weaving. The process consists of measuring and winding the warp, sleying the reed, threading the heddles, winding the warp on to the loom, and fastening it to the front and back rods of the loom.
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  • -- the threads that pass through the shed from selvedge to selvedge. Weft threads align horizontally and are perpendicular to the warp. Weft threads are wound on to a shuttle.
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  • - the weft is dominant in the woven cloth. The warp is covered by the weft.
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